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Models of doctoral education in the USA and EU

There are two types (models) of this education in the European Union: German-British and American. The first is to implement the candidate for a PhD for academic work in the university chair, including research work under the guidance of an academic teacher with high professional achievements.

The second one, more and more widespread in Europe, manifests itself in completing doctoral studies in a way that enables greater access to the doctoral degree and its quick obtaining at the age of 27-29, with limited contacts with the academic supervisor. As it is now noted, the position of an eccentric master appearing from the height and feudal surrender of the doctoral student goes down in history. However, universities do not always notice that there is universal access to information in which the internet plays an important role, and therefore there is no more monopoly on knowledge and its transfer by one person.

Democratic structure and openness is an indispensable condition for scientific research based on the universality of information and access to it. An example of such an approach is Open Worm, which is a model example of learning and working on research projects, in which all relations are horizontal with the participation of the highest coordinators, but without supervisors.

Doctoral studies are often in form of extending master’s studies, which should be considered unfavorable for the scientific development of the doctoral student. It is noticed that the graduation of doctoral studies on a smaller scale than the master studies. A doctoral dissertation is not always the result of scientific research and sometimes it does not solve the scientific problem, which consequently reduces its level.

In the United States, doctoral training takes place somewhat differently, as a result of combining institutionalized doctoral studies conducted at universities rather than at faculties, in the so-called graduate schools. Scientific research is conducted on specific departments. Undoubtedly, this form of education of doctoral students is conducive to quickly obtaining a doctoral degree supported by scientific research.

In Finland, obtaining a doctoral degree is preceded by preparatory doctoral studies, aimed at implementing a doctoral student for scientific work, enabling scientific research, acquiring a specific amount of knowledge and transfer skills, writing a doctoral dissertation and its public defense.

It is also possible to obtain a doctoral degree without studying if there are enough publications on the same problem.

The doctoral thesis is subject to expert assessment. Public defense is adversarial. It is preceded by a doctoral student’s lecture, after which written comments from reviewers are presented, remarks can also be made by the public. The doctoral degree is awarded by the department as a result of a positive assessment of the content of the work and its defense.

There are two types (models) of this education in the European Union: German-British and American. The first is to implement the candidate for a PhD for academic work in the university chair, including research work under the guidance of an academic teacher with high professional achievements.

The second one, more and more widespread in Europe, manifests itself in completing doctoral studies in a way that enables greater access to the doctoral degree and its quick obtaining at the age of 27-29, with limited contacts with the academic supervisor. As it is now noted, the position of an eccentric master appearing from the height and feudal surrender of the doctoral student goes down in history. However, universities do not always notice that there is universal access to information in which the internet plays an important role, and therefore there is no more monopoly on knowledge and its transfer by one person.

Democratic structure and openness is an indispensable condition for scientific research based on the universality of information and access to it. An example of such an approach is Open Worm, which is a model example of learning and working on research projects, in which all relations are horizontal with the participation of the highest coordinators, but without supervisors.

In Germany, university employees (assistants) write their doctoral dissertations with their tutors (about 65% of young scientists). As part of the classic goal of obtaining a doctorate (Das “Lehrlingsmodell”: der klassische Weg zur wtiori), the candidate searches for the promoter himself by making contact with him, presenting a doctoral dissertation plan and making its outlines (50-100 pages), another step is to start writing work under the scientific supervision of the promoter. Although these studies are free, the person who writes the work may apply for individual financial aid in the form of scholarships from various foundations supporting specific programs.

Doctoral studies in various fields are conducted at many universities in many research institutes (360 different programs, of which 130 international, partly as part of research programs). These studies have different names: Promotions-Program, Graduate Schools, Promotionskollegs, and Graduate-Review.

The condition for admission to doctoral studies is at least a good grade at the diploma. It is also possible to accept graduates of undergraduate studies who show special achievements, however, there are no national regulations in this area. Reception conditions are set by individual universities. In doctoral colleges (Graduiertenkollegs) he conducts classes of 10-15 academic teachers, on which there are about 30 doctoral students.

In Poland, obtaining a doctoral degree is not dependent exclusively on doctoral studies in the manner specified in the Act, it is possible to write a doctoral dissertation and defend it separately from those studies. In practice, this is conditioned by the acceptance of the subject of work by an independent researcher, who will then support the candidate for the doctoral degree in subsequent activities aimed at defending work.